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HOWTOs: Installing Debian GNU/Linux on Alphas
Posted on Tuesday, February 19 @ 20:56:13 GMT
This article describes how to have fun and impress your friends by obtaining old Alpha workstations and installing Debian GNU/Linux on them. I'll be installing "potato" (2.2.R3) on my AlphaStation 250. This is a 1995-vintage workstation with an Alpha CPU. It's the main application/DNS/NFS/DHCP server on my home network, and is presently my favorite machine. I had been running RedHat on it, but after seeing "apt-get dist-upgrade" run for the first time earlier this year, I've been upgrading all my boxes to Debian.
Getting into old hardware
It's fun to play with old hardware. I especially like old UNIX
workstations. In addition to the AlphaStation, I own several Digital
Multia "Universal Desktop Boxes" with Alpha CPUs, a Hewlett/Packard
Apollo 720 (Hurray for HPPA support in "woody"!), and a NeXTstation
N1100 - and I'm always looking for more. Why are these machines fun?
Part of the appeal is obtaining the unobtainable: when these machines
were new, they were the stuff of my dreams - I could never have
afforded them. Part of the appeal is being different - anyone can own
a PC, not everyone runs an AlphaStation. But the biggest part of the
appeal is cost: many people don't want these machines anymore; you can
often get them cheap, or even free!
It's not difficult to acquire your own 90's-era UNIX workstations.
Sellam Ismail has an excellent primer on finding old computers on the
Vintage Computer Festival
website. He lists many potential sources of machines. I've found
machines on Internet auction and for-sale sites. Some turn up on
local LUG mailing lists. I often see SPARCs, SGIs, and DECstations at
Hamfests. (Hamfests are flea markets for Amateur Radio and computer
users.) If you spread the word that you collect old hardware, people
that want to get rid of old machines may actually come to you. I've
gotten about half of my machines for free in this manner.
Note that old computers have often been raided for spare parts;
it's not unusual to see machines for sale without RAM and disk drives.
So, make sure you know what's missing before you buy a machine, and
keep in mind that you'll have to fix it before you can get the machine
up and running.
Alphas are a good place to start
The early 90's had many UNIX workstation vendors. There are plenty of
models to choose from, many of which are supported by Debian
GNU/Linux. Alpha machines represent a good place to start exploring
the world of old computers, for two reasons: First, there is good
documentation available for them, and second, they are compatible with
many kinds of common PC hardware.
There is plenty of documentation for old Alpha workstations on the
Net. Many operating systems support the Alpha architecture, so there
is no shortage of support pages, mailing lists, and HOWTOs. The
Alpha Linux page is a
particularly good resource. Furthermore, you can still download the
original manuals for many Alpha workstations from the old
site. This documentation can help you overcome both hardware and
Alpha workstations are compatible with many kinds of inexpensive PC
hardware. For example, my Alpha workstations use VGA, 10BaseT
Ethernet, and PCI cards, just like the average PC. My Multia
workstations even have two PCMCIA card slots.
Being able to use standard PC monitors and cards on my Alphas has been
a considerable convenience. However, there are limits to this
compatibility: all my Alphas require full-parity 72-pin SIMMs - an
unusual kind of RAM that seldom can be obtained as cheaply as more
common PC-oriented flavors. Also, Multia workstations won't operate
without a live Rayovac 840 clock battery (or a superior modern
replacement model), requiring a trip to a store that sells batteries
for old Macs.
Installing Debian GNU/Linux
I'm going to be installing Debian GNU/Linux 2.2R3 "potato" on my
AlphaStation 250. The machine has a 3.5" floppy drive, a SCSI CD-ROM
reader, and an 8 GB SCSI hard disk. It also has an SVGA monitor and a
keyboard to act as a console. I've got the Binary-1 CD-ROM for
The instructions provided on the Binary-1 CD-ROM for this kind of install
are quite good. Although there's little I'll be able to add to them
here, this account will at least demonstrate that installing on Alphas
is not significantly harder than installing on a typical PC.
I've already backed up all the data from the AlphaStation on which I'm
going to install. You should make backups too, because, although it's
intended to be accurate and helpful, this account of my install my
contain errors, and is provided without warranty.
FYI, there's a great deal of useful hardware support information in
Chapter 2 "System Requirements" in the
Debian installation manual, including a
reference to the
Linux Alpha HOWTO.
Reading through this material is a good way to become an educated
consumer before buying Alpha hardware.
Section 6.6 "Alpha Console Firmware" is also a good source of
information for those new to Alpha machines. The Alpha console
firmware is much more powerful than the BIOS on most PCs. As a rule,
this firmware implements two complete interactive console shells: a
command-line-oriented one called "SRM" designed to support UNIX and
VMS, and a menu-oriented one called "ARC" designed to support Windows
NT. You can use either console shell to boot Linux off of a floppy or
hard disk. However, the SRM console shell is more powerful than ARC:
for example, SRM can boot Linux from an Ethernet device. The Debian
installation instructions suggest SRM over ARC. Although I've had
good luck with ARC in the past, I'm going to use SRM this time.
- Boot to the SRM console shell.
The first step is to power-on the machine and boot to the SRM console
shell. The SRM console shell prompt looks like ">>>". If, instead of
this prompt, your Alpha boots to a blue screen with menus, that's ARC.
If you wind up in ARC, navigate the menu tree until you find the
option to switch to the SRM console shell. The proper series of
choices should be something like:
- Supplementary menu...
- Set up the system...
- Switch to OpenVMS or Digital UNIX console
- Switch to Digital UNIX
Once you select the "Switch to Digital UNIX" item, power cycle the
machine and it should come up in the SRM console shell.
An amusing fact: all you'd need to do to switch back to ARC from SRM
would be to type "arc" and hit return. Who says command line
interfaces are harder to use? The original manuals from the Digital
FTP site cited above contain complete reference information for both
console shells, if you want it.
- Boot Linux from the CD-ROM.
Stick the Binary-1 CD-ROM in the reader. At the ">>>" SRM prompt type
The show command will show you all the devices. For example, my
floppy drive shows up as dva0, my SCSI hard disk shows up as dka200,
and my SCSI CD-ROM reader shows up as dka600. So, I'll ask the SRM
console to boot the Linux kernel from my CD-ROM like this:
boot dka600 -file boot/linux
The boot command boots the Linux kernel, which should start the Debian
install program automatically.
- (Re)partition the hard disk.
The SRM console shell uses a bootloader called "aboot" to boot the
Linux kernel. The aboot bootloader is the equivalent of lilo or grub on
PCs. The aboot bootloader requires your hard disk partition table to
use a BSD-style disklabel. Most PC bootloaders do not require
BSD-style disklabels, so if you've partitioned your hard disk with a
PC before, the disklabel is probably not there. So, you should
execute the "partition your hard disk" installation step, even if your
disk is already partitioned. This will allow the fdisk program to
create the proper disklabel for you, automatically.
Unfortunately, the default cfdisk disk partitioning program can't
handle BSD-style disklabels. We'll be forced to use the more-powerful
alternate fdisk program, which is harder to use. A transcript of my
session with fdisk follows, as an example. My input and some comments
(delimited with /* and */) are shown in bold.
Command (m for help): b /* Give me BSD-style disklabel */
/dev/sda contains no disklabel.
Do you want to create a disklabel? (y/n) y
At this point, fdisk displays an empty partition table. The
automatically-generated entry for "c:" just shows the geometry of the
drive; it's not a partition that takes up space, it's not a partition
you can put data in. I'll just pretend it's not there, and I won't
use the label "c:" for any of my partitions.
Fdisk also shows some information about the drive geometry here,
including the number of bytes in each sector, and the number of
sectors in each cylinder. My disk has 512 bytes per sector, and 2048
sectors per cylinder, so I know that each cylinder is 1MB in size.
This is useful information, because I'll be choosing sizes for my
partitions in units of cylinders in the next steps. Note that I start
my first partition at cylinder 2 in order to leave room at the head of
the drive for the "aboot" boot loader.
BSD disklabel command (m for help): n /* 1/2GB for root */
Partition (a-h): a
First cylinder (1-8347, default 1): 2
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM of +sizeK (2-8347, default 8347): 511
BSD disklabel command (m for help): n /* 1/2GB for swap */
Partition (a-h): b
First cylinder (512-8347, default 512): (enter)
Using default value 512
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM of +sizeK (2-8347, default 8347): 1023
BSD disklabel command (m for help): n /* usr */
Partition (a-h): d
First cylinder (1024-8347, default 1024): (enter)
Using default value 1024
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM of +sizeK (2-8347, default 8347): 2047
BSD disklabel command (m for help): n /* var */
Partition (a-h): e
First cylinder (1024-8347, default 1024): 2048
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM of +sizeK (2-8347, default 8347): 3071
BSD disklabel command (m for help): n /* home */
Partition (a-h): f
First cylinder (1024-8347, default 1024): 3072
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM of +sizeK (2-8347, default 8347): 6143
BSD disklabel command (m for help): n /* extra partition */
Partition (a-h): g
First cylinder (1024-8347, default 1024): 6144
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM of +sizeK (2-8347, default 8347): (enter)
Using default value 8347
BSD disklabel command (m for help): t /* set swap FS type */
Partition (a-g): b
Hex code (type L to list codes): L
Fdisk prints a list of known codes at this point. The code for swap is 1.
Hex code (type L to list codes): 1
BSD disklabel command (m for help): p /* print the table */
# start end size fstype
a: 2 511 510 ext2 /* root, start at cyl 2 for aboot! */
b: 512 1023 512 swap /* swap */
c: 1 8347 8347 unused /* just ignore this */
d: 1024 2047 1024 ext2 /* /usr */
e: 2048 3071 1024 ext2 /* /var */
f: 3072 6143 3072 ext2 /* /home */
g: 6144 8347 2204 ext2 /* extra partition for future use */
BSD disklabel command (m for help): w /* write the table to disk */
Writing disklabel to /dev/sda
BSD disklabel command (m for help): q /* quit fdisk */
There, using fdisk wasn't so bad, was it?
When the you execute the mid-install reboot, you should return to the
">>>" SRM prompt. If you wish, you can use "show dev" to show the
device names again. I used
boot dka200 -file vmlinuz
to boot the newly-installed Linux kernel off of my SCSI hard disk and
complete the installation.
The SRM console shell and fdisk may take a little getting used to, but
installing on Alphas isn't much more complicated than installing on
the average PC.
Don't expect old workstations to be powerhouses of performance.
(There's a reason why people are willing to sell these things cheap.)
I ran some informal BYTE Magazine UNIX benchmarks (UNIXBench 4.1.0)
on a representative sample of my Alphas and PCs just to give some
perspective. This is a general macro-benchmark originally developed
long ago at BYTE magazine. It's now being maintained and improved by
David C. Niemi. It combines a variety of computational and filesystem
exercises, and spits out a "score" at the end. The more powerful your
machine, the bigger your score.
I didn't put a great deal of effort into making these tests
perfectly-controlled, so don't stake your life on their pinpoint
accuracy. Your mileage may vary. All of the machines were running
Linux kernels with versions between 2.2.17 and 2.2.19 using gcc
versions between 2.91.66 and 2.95.4. I used the Intel-specific gcc
optimization flags provided in the UNIXBench makefile when building
the benchmark on PCs. After some experimentation with -mcpu=ev4,
-mno-soft-float, and -mfp-regs (no improvement, perhaps these are
defaults), I used only the makefile's default generic optimization
flags when building the benchmark on the Alphas.
UNIXBench 4.1 Scores for Several Alphas and PCs
| UNIXBench Score|
| Alpha 21066A|
| AS 250|
| Alpha 21064A|
| Pentium II|
| Pentium III|
The benchmark shows that the Multia is slightly more powerful than a
486 PC - powerful enough to make a good firewall, DNS, or DHCP server,
for example. The AlphaStation 250 (shown as AS 250 in the table)
scores ahead of the Pentium PCs that were common in 1995. Neither old
Alpha workstation achieved anywhere near the score of the Pentium III.
Still, it's important to put the value of performance into perspective:
The PC market being what it is, the new PC you pull out of a shipping
crate today will start to seem old and slow not long after you've
gotten all the Styrofoam packing material cleaned up. Everyone has an
old, slow PC. But an old, slow AlphaStation - that's something
So, now that it's running Debian GNU/Linux, the old AlphaStation 250
should be fine for my purposes... at least until someone tells me they
want to get rid of a newer Alpha machine. Anyone have one of those
multi-processor GS AlphaServers they want to throw out? Not yet?
That's the upside to running old machines: sooner or later, the
machine of your dreams will come to you. It's only a matter of time.
Submitted by Tim Fraser
|"HOWTOs: Installing Debian GNU/Linux on Alphas" | Login/Create Account | 21 comments
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